A Moon For Makemake

A Moon For MakemakeImagine, a frigid, distant shadow-region in the far suburbs our Solar System, where a myriad of twirling icy objects–some large, some small–orbit our Sun in a mysterious, mesmerizing phantom-like ballet within this eerie and strange swath of darkness. Here, where our Sun is so far away that it hangs suspended in an alien sky of perpetual twilight, looking just like a particularly large star traveling through a sea of smaller stars, is the Kuiper Belt–a mysterious, distant deep-freeze that astronomers are only now first beginning to explore. Makemake is a denizen of this remote region, a dwarf planet that is one of the largest known objects inhabiting the Kuiper Belt, sporting a diameter that is about two-thirds the size of Pluto. In April 2016, a team of astronomers announced that, while peering into the outer limits of our Solar System, NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope (HST) discovered a tiny, dark moon orbiting Makemake, which is the second brightest icy dwarf planet–after Pluto–in the Kuiper Belt.

The tiny moon–which for now has been designated S/2015 (136472) 1, and playfully

The Gravitational Force

Gravitation is defined as a force of attraction between any two bodies. Gravity is also a force of attraction exerted by the earth upon a body on or near its surface. The weight of any object at any point in the space can be defined as the resultant gravitational force, which is acting on the object caused by all the remaining objects in the space.

The motions of all the heavenlThe Gravitational Forcey bodies have fascinated the ancient thinkers too. The invention of telescope by Galileo did facilitate the recording of the movements of astronomical bodies.

Sir Issac Newton could simplify the Kepler’s laws of planetary motion into a simple law and is termed as the law of universal gravitation. It was proved that his law is applicable not only for the heavenly bodies, but also for any two bodies in our universe.

He opined that the force of attraction between any two material objects in our universe is directly proportional to the product of their masses and also inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres. He could also derive several mathematical

Parallel Vs Series Circuit

Parallel Vs Series CircuitAn electric circuit is formed when the electrons from a voltage or current source flow, but most circuits have more than one device that receives electric energy. Most of the devices in a circuit like a light bulb, resistor, or a capacitor are connected in one of two ways, series or parallel. When it’s connected in series, the devices form a single pathway for electron flow between the terminals. Then when it’s connected in parallel the wires form branches; this means that it separates the path for the flow of electrons. Parallel and series both have their own different way to connect and they are calculated using different formulas.

Series is an electric circuit in which electrical devices are connected along a single wire so that the same electric current flows through all of them. What this means for resistance is that it’s greater, because the electrons all go through the same path through the circuit. The way to find series is to find the total resistance by using the formula: Rt= R1+ R2+ R3. This means

Design Within The Non Biological Realm

My central premise here is that you know design when you see it. You know design when in fact something is designed. But how do you know design when you see it? There are usually three criteria that assist you or that seem to apply here. The first is variety (both within the class of objects as well as within the object itself). If something non-living comes in a kind of a Heinz 57-variety selection, then perhaps design is at work. In addition, if any individual object is composed of a wide variety of components, then it stands a good chance it was designed. The second is symmetry. Objects that have symmetry seem to be more likely designed as not designed. The third is complexity. The greater the complexity the more likely there was a designer behind the complexity. Something that has variety, complexity and symmetry is highly likely to be designed*. For example:


Ant Hills / Nests; Aztec / Mayan / Egyptian Pyramids; Bicycles (and related vehicles); Birds Nest; Furniture (i.e. – chairs, tables); DVDs / CDs; Electronic Goods and Equipment; Jewellery (i.e. – earrings, rings, bracelets); Easter Island Statues; Radio Telescopes; Rosetta

The Mystery Of The Migrating Roaster Planets

The last decade has seen the discovery of a treasure trove of exoplanets. Indeed, almost 2,000 of these distant, alien planets, that belong to the families of stars beyond our own Sun, have been confirmed–so far! Many of these distant, exotic worlds belong to a strange class termed hot Jupiters, which are gas-giants like our own Solar System’s behemoth Jupiter, but are much hotter because they sport orbits that carry them within a “roasting” distance of their fiery stellar parents. But as common as hot Jupiters are thought to be, their formation history is still heavily shrouded in mystery–how did these gigantic, roasting worlds manage to get so close to their searing-hot and roiling parent-stars? That is the question! In March 2016, a team of astronomers using NASA’s infrared Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), announced that they have found an answer to this intriguing riddle.

When the very first batch of hot Jupiters were discovered a generation ago, they were generally considered to be “oddballs” because we do not have anything like them in our Sun’s family. However, as more and more of these exotic and very distant worlds were spotted over the last two decades (along

Our Galaxy’s Hidden Heart Reveals Its Ancient Secrets

Our Milky Way Galaxy is very old. Indeed, at 13.21 billion years of age, it is almost as old as the 13.8 billion year old Universe itself, which was born in the wild exponential inflation of the Big Bang. In fact, the oldest stars inhabiting our Galaxy were likely part of the brilliant stellar fireworks display that brought to an end the strange Cosmic Dark Ages–the era that occurred soon after the Big Bang when our Universe was a featureless swath of barren darkness. Today, we can observe our Galaxy as a fuzzy band of white light that stretches across the night sky, from horizon to horizon, like an upside down smile, reminding us that we are only a small part of something else–something vast, mighty, and mysterious. In April 2016, an international team of astronomers announced they have discovered that the central 2,000 light-years within our Galaxy hosts a population of primordial stars that are more than 10 billion years old–and their orbits in space preserve the ancient long-lost story of our Milky Way’s birth.

When we look up at the sky on a clear midnight, we see that it has been set on fire

How To Learn Math With Ease

Math is a subject which explores the truths of life from various angles. Without logic, reasoning and methodical approach, doing Math is a difficult matter. Though there are various sources that have come forward to suggest methods for easy Math doing, online tutoring is at the peak with its innovative methods and virtual setup.

How to do Math with ease? Here are some steps

  • There are many myths about Math and it is the general tendency of students to believe in them and go by them. Math is not a dragon challenging you for a fight. Deem Math as your friend and try to treat it well. The rest is all good rapport between you and Math. Thus, it is basically your positive approach towards Math which decides your good scores in the subject.
  • Next, you should focus on what Math wants to convey to you and how far it is related to your life. When you understand that Math is related to your life in very many daily activities and that it explores the laws of the universe, you feel drawn towards the subject and start learning it with interest.
  • You should understand the basic concept that

Top 6 Reasons Why Kids Must Learn Math

Math is a basic skill in life and its applications are strewn all over the walks of life. Doing Math with seriousness is an important aspect of successful education and it needs planning right from one’s childhood. Following are the reasons why kids must learn Math.

1. Gathering problem solving skills: The Problems are the lifeline of Math. When students solve Math problems in its various branches, they gather abilities to organize information, rearrange the information and test hypotheses.

2. Learning to live smarter: There are various occasions in life where one has to use his mathematical abilities. Calculating the tip in a restaurant, checking the warranty of a product, smart driving without wasting time and fuel, buying grocery in a shop and business deals are occasions where one uses his mathematical knowledge to make proper decisions.

3. Gate keeper subject for other academic subjects: Math is the gateway for Science subjects like Physics and Engineering. Without Math abilities, accomplishment in higher studies is out of the question.

4. Vast scope for different careers: Right from computer programmers to tradesmen and doctors, people need mathematical knowledge in their respective fields. A fundamental knowledge

Make Friends With Physics

Most students think that physics is such a difficult subject that some of them would rather avoid than try to master it. However, regardless you like or not, you have to stick with it, passing the exam to continue the next semester. Thus we want to help you solve your problem dealing with physics.

Firstly, it is very important that you always pay attention to the teacher and the explanation during the class. Even though you don’t like this subject, don’t put the class aside, thinking that you can study it at home with ease by only reading the theories on the textbooks. As you know that physics is rather difficult to understand, just hand it to the lecturer or teacher as the expert to give you the explanation.

Don’t try to memorize things your lecturers say or you read from textbooks. Instead, understand the logic and how something works or happens. Try to really understand the matter, especially during the experiment activities.

Another thing you can do is to make a study group. It is better for you to form it in early in the semester that it will be easy when you

Tips to Make Your Children Like Physics

Physics seems to be such a difficult subject that many students avoid. The only way to master this subject is to be accustomed to it. As parents, you can introduce Physics to your children as early as possible. Here we have some tips to make your kids love Physics.

Remember that physics needs experiments for better understanding. Therefore, the first thing you have to do is to make your children accustomed to such experiments. Make them intrigued to ask how something can happen. Just find simple experiments, but attractive.

There are typical children who are so reluctant to study, even to hear any words dealing with studying. Hence, when you ask your children to get involved in those experiments, avoid the terms of studying. Create the atmosphere as if you were playing with them. They will be more relaxed that they don’t realize that they are actually studying Physics.

Speaking on simple experiments, you can practice to make a volcano with your children. You only need to prepare sand, a used bottle of mineral water, vinegar, two-spoon baking soda, food coloring (choose red one to give a sense of lava), and a tray.

The Concept Of Mars Colonisation

There is a lot of speculation about possible human colonisation in the Red Planet. There are many studies being conducted to confirm and make it a reality. The presence of water on the planet and the look and feel of its surface conditions make it seem the most hospitable in comparison to the other planets. Apart from Venus, Mars is the only other planet that requires less energy per unit mass to reach from our mother Earth. Though it seems that colonisation of Mars is possible there are a lot of other challenges.

Mars’s similarity to Earth

Though Venus is considered the sister planet of Earth because of its size, surface gravity and bulk composition, the similarities Mars has to Earth make it more appealing for colonisation. A few of the similarities are enumerated below:

· Human habitation conditions

The conditions such as temperature and atmospheric pressure are very close to that of Earth however the air pressure is very low along with low oxygen content. This brings up the requirement for complex and artificial life-support systems to make colonisation a reality.

· Radiation

The absence of a magnetic field in

Heat Transfer

The sun is the primary source of heat. It is defined as the energy in transit. The rate of its transfer is variable from substance to substance. It can be conducted rapidly through the conductors. Metals such as silver, copper are good conductors. Cloth, wood, air, glass, wool, distilled water, etc are bad conductors. It is conducted very slowly through the bad conductors.

The conductivity of substances is directly proportional to the magnitude of free electrons. When any substance is heated, the free electrons acquire the kinetic energy and thus move towards the remaining cooler locations. The heat energy would be transferred from one atom to the other atom due to their vibrations in the shape of waves. Hence, the atoms do take an active role in the process of transfer of heat. This method of transmission is known as conduction.

The woolen textile materials do contain very fine pore spaces. Both the air and the wool are very bad conductors of heat. Hence, the woollen clothes are being used to maintain the warm during cold seasons. The bricks are bad conductors of heat. Hence, thick walls are constructed in building the cold storage rooms.

Some Fun Filled Science Experiments

Science can be fun when demonstrated experimentally. Below are a few fun-filled experiments that help understand certain concepts.

The Anti-gravity wheel

A wheel weighing 19 kg is lifted overhead being held only at one end of a meter long bar attached to it. Though this seems an impossible task, Derek Muller performs this task by using only simple physics. This is done by applying gyroscopic precession which is torque induced precession. The wheel is made in a way that allows the wheel to rotate freely on application of an external force and the wheel rotates on an axis bar. The force applied is in the opposite direction to the axis bar. The wheel and the entire apparatus feels light to the person holding it when enough force is applied.

The Backwards Brain Bicycle

This experiment is a very good demonstration of the ability of the human brain to change and evolve so as to change neural pathways. The experiment actually makes the simple task of riding a bicycle look like a challenging mental task.

The bike is designed in such a way that when the handle bars are steered towards the right

The Very Essence Of Space Time And Gravity

The pulling force that keeps all matter together is called gravity. As the matter increases so does the gravitational force. The amount of matter in something is measured by mass. When things are huge they exert more gravitational force. A very good example of gravitational force is the force exerted by Earth. When we walk the earth pulls us towards it and on the contrary we pull the earth towards us. However since the earth is massive we are not able to move it. The earths force is much higher and is powerful enough to make a person face down.

Gravity depends on the mass and also the distance. This is exactly why we still remain on the earth and are not pulled out into space by the sun which has a gravitational force that is many times more powerful than that of Earth.

All about Space-time and its fundamentals

Things start and happen in space. Time is considered to be when these things happen. It is necessary to combine these two elements to actually understand the universe.

Another fundamental is that though light travels at 299,792,458 meters per second and you are

All There Is To Know About Terraforming Of Mars

A very hypothetical process by which the climate and surface of the planet Mars would be changed to accommodate humans thereby making colonization of Mars easier and safe is called terraforming of Mars. It is simply the transformation of the planet to allow the human race to safely inhabit it.

Terraforming concepts are numerous, however only a few seem to be achievable using technology of the modern world. Some concepts are close to impossible due to the heavy costs predicted, both natural and economic.

Factors that led to the thought of terraforming Mars

Anything that is deliberately done will have a motivational factor associated. Similarly the factors that led to the concept are the high demand for resources, population explosion and finally the doomsday theory. Mars is the closest to earth when it comes to livability and is said to have had thicker atmosphere and Earth like conditions earlier on. This planet is considered the most available because of its proximity from Earth, its water availability and similarity to our planet.

Challenges faced

· The environmental factors may pose a challenge in terraforming Mars.

· The pressure and gravity in Mars

The Emptiness Of Atomic Space

Of all of the anomalies in modern science, especially in the micro-world of particle physics and quantum mechanics that straddle the “I know what I saw” versus the “it can’t be therefore it isn’t” schools of philosophy is the “I know what I saw” enigma in atomic theory that dictates via actual experimental observation that atoms (hence all normal matter and antimatter) is 99.999% empty space. From our macro-world perspective we reply “it can’t be therefore it isn’t” because our world appears to be as close to 100% solid as makes no odds. We can’t pass through solid walls (only Casper the Friendly Ghost can really do that) and so we conclude again that “it can’t be therefore it isn’t”. It’s one of the rare times the scientist says “yes” and the layperson says “no way”.

If atoms are 99.999% empty space you’d think you’d have Superman’s X-Ray vision, only in the visible part of the spectrum, and could even without trying see through ‘solid’ matter, maybe even clear through Planet Earth* itself. Yet you can’t even see one millimetre into your own body. You might therefore conclude that there must be a sufficient number of

Even More Random Thoughts In Physics

Sometimes you have a new thought, an idea, or eureka moment, but it’s not gutsy enough to expand into a reasonable length article or essay. So, here’s yet a third pot-pourri of thoughts dealing with physics and related too good not to record, but with not enough meat available to flesh out.

* In reviewing several of my essays I’ve noted that I’ve occasionally said that there is just the one physics, yet I’ve often said for the record that quantum physics and classical physics (General Relativity) are incompatible and forever will be. In other words, there’s no quantum gravity and no Theory of Everything (TOE). Is this in conflict? No. There is the one physics even though you’d be hard pressed to unify thermodynamics with levers, inclined planes and pulleys.

* Universal Parameters: You cannot determine from first principles what the properties of the Universe, or the fundamental particles that make up the Universe, are. They apparently can have free range. A proton is 2000 times more massive than an electron, but you can’t calculate that from the theoretical laws, principles and relationships of physics. It’s only determined experimentally. There doesn’t seem to be

Life, The Universe And Everything Are Illusions

An illusion is anything which is not quite as it appears to be at face value. Illusions are just mental concepts based on perceptions of what you assumed were real through in reality had no actual structure or substance but in terms of perception otherwise appear to have actual structure and substance. The prime example is the Full Moon illusion whereby the Full Moon on the horizon or near the horizon appears much larger than when it is seen much higher in the sky or overhead. Of course it really is just an illusion. Here are some further examples of what IMHO are probably illusionary in that these concepts are not quite what they appear to be.

Really Real Reality Is An Illusion: Really real reality is just an illusion if we are really virtual reality beings ‘existing’ in a simulated landscape. That is to say, we are just programmed software in a sort of video game that’s been constructed by an entity or entities unknown. IMHO the odds that this is our (virtual) reality is quite high.

Superposition of State and the Collapse of the Wave-Function Are Illusions: It’s an illusion to have something that

How Does Sound Transmit in Different Mediums

Scientists find out that there are three basic kinds of media for sound to travel through: solid, liquid and air. When sound waves move through solid, liquid or air, the molecules are vibrating in the matter. The molecules in solid are packed extremely tightly; the molecules in liquid are packed less tightly than in solid; the molecules in air are packed loosely. The reason is that solid has definite shape and volume; liquid has indefinite shape and definite volume; air has indefinite and indefinite volume. The speed of sound travelling in air is 340m/s, however, sound transmits four times faster in water than it does in air.

First, we focus on solid media such as wood, steel, plastic and so on. If a person is hitting a drum, the surface of drum will vibrate. Then he adds more force, and the sounds will become louder and clearer. If he strikes different parts of skin, the sound will also be different. People may wonder how to prove that the drum is vibrating and how to prove the loudness. We can put small pieces of paper on the drum surface. When the person strikes the drum softly, paper

A Fourth Helping Of Random Thoughts About Physics

Sometimes you have a new thought, an idea, or eureka moment, but it’s not gutsy enough to expand into a reasonable length article or essay. So, here’s my fourth pot-pourri of thoughts dealing with physics and related, too good not to record, but with not enough meat available to flesh out.

* You’ll often note mathematicians and physicists expressing descriptive words like beauty and elegance when describing some mathematical equation or something that’s symmetrical. Of course this just exhibits evidence that scientists are human. However, there really is no place for such emotive concepts in science. The equation is what it is; the symmetry is what it is; the laws, principles and relations of science are what they are. They are not beautiful; they are not ugly; they are what they are. Beauty and elegance and related concepts are in the mind of the beholder, and science truths are independent of the human mind.

* Superposition of states is just a mental concept that has no bearing on reality. It is a way of enabling us to come to terms with lack of certainty whether you’re wondering about where that electron is or what the