A very hypothetical process by which the climate and surface of the planet Mars would be changed to accommodate humans thereby making colonization of Mars easier and safe is called terraforming of Mars. It is simply the transformation of the planet to allow the human race to safely inhabit it.
Terraforming concepts are numerous, however only a few seem to be achievable using technology of the modern world. Some concepts are close to impossible due to the heavy costs predicted, both natural and economic.
Factors that led to the thought of terraforming Mars
Anything that is deliberately done will have a motivational factor associated. Similarly the factors that led to the concept are the high demand for resources, population explosion and finally the doomsday theory. Mars is the closest to earth when it comes to livability and is said to have had thicker atmosphere and Earth like conditions earlier on. This planet is considered the most available because of its proximity from Earth, its water availability and similarity to our planet.
· The environmental factors may pose a challenge in terraforming Mars.
· The pressure and gravity in Mars is considerably low
· The atmospheric pressure being very low will cause the bodily fluids to boil away.
· Even if breathable oxygen is provided in plenty, the low pressure will cause death in a few minutes.
Overcoming effects of the weather in space
The thin atmosphere of the planet may be the resultant of the absence of a magnetosphere. This causes the inability to mitigate solar radiation and thereby preventing the retaining of atmosphere.
The Ozone helps in providing protection from Ultraviolet light as it is blocked even before it breaks into hydrogen and oxygen.
Mars would require a magnetic field closer to what the Earth has in order to offset the effects of the solar wind.
Theorists have come up with the theory that Mars is located in the outer most layer of what is termed as habitable. This is a region in the solar system where life is possible. The location of Mars is in an area where life is possible if the greenhouse gases increases the atmospheric pressure considerably.
The atmosphere of Mars contains many elements such as nitrogen, sulphur, hydrogen, oxygen and carbon and all these are crucial for life to exist.
An abundant of carbon-di-oxide is present as atmospheric content. A process called electrolysis could be applied to split oxygen and hydrogen but it is possible only if a good amount of electricity and water is available.
In order to colonise Mars it is required to build up the atmosphere, keep it warm and the atmosphere needs to be kept from being lost to space. The atmospheric pressure being very low makes it difficult to keep the atmosphere within.