Category: Education

Some Fun Filled Science Experiments

Science can be fun when demonstrated experimentally. Below are a few fun-filled experiments that help understand certain concepts.

The Anti-gravity wheel

A wheel weighing 19 kg is lifted overhead being held only at one end of a meter long bar attached to it. Though this seems an impossible task, Derek Muller performs this task by using only simple physics. This is done by applying gyroscopic precession which is torque induced precession. The wheel is made in a way that allows the wheel to rotate freely on application of an external force and the wheel rotates on an axis bar. The force applied is in the opposite direction to the axis bar. The wheel and the entire apparatus feels light to the person holding it when enough force is applied.

The Backwards Brain Bicycle

This experiment is a very good demonstration of the ability of the human brain to change and evolve so as to change neural pathways. The experiment actually makes the simple task of riding a bicycle look like a challenging mental task.

The bike is designed in such a way that when the handle bars are steered towards the right the wheel turns towards the left and the other way round. Since the front wheel turns to the opposite direction to where the handle bar is turned the rider fumbles when trying to ride this bike. On riding this bike for a good amount of time, it gets challenging to ride a traditional bike the way it is supposed to be ridden.

The riding of a traditional bike is made easy because of the cerebellum. This area of the brain is responsible for proper motor control, coordination and balance. Most of the automatic activities are controlled by the cerebellum and this is exactly why injury to this part can be alarming throwing the individual off-balance and completely impossible.

The Magnus effect

An effect produced where a spinning ball curves from its path is termed Magnus effect. When balls are hit the Magnus effect works when at the same time a spin is given. Golfers, soccer players use this effect to curve the path of the ball. The effect works in the following manner. When the ball that spins is moving through the air a boundary layer of air clings to the surface and spins along. This layer when moving collides with passing air on one side creating a high pressure area. One the other side the air moves in the same direction and so travels faster creating a low pressure area. This pressure difference creates a lift force called the Magnus force causing the ball to move from high pressure area to low pressure area.

The Gravitational Force

Gravitation is defined as a force of attraction between any two bodies. Gravity is also a force of attraction exerted by the earth upon a body on or near its surface. The weight of any object at any point in the space can be defined as the resultant gravitational force, which is acting on the object caused by all the remaining objects in the space.

The motions of all the heavenlThe Gravitational Forcey bodies have fascinated the ancient thinkers too. The invention of telescope by Galileo did facilitate the recording of the movements of astronomical bodies.

Sir Issac Newton could simplify the Kepler’s laws of planetary motion into a simple law and is termed as the law of universal gravitation. It was proved that his law is applicable not only for the heavenly bodies, but also for any two bodies in our universe.

He opined that the force of attraction between any two material objects in our universe is directly proportional to the product of their masses and also inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres. He could also derive several mathematical equations related to the gravitational force.

According to him, the gravitational force of attraction of any object towards the centre of the earth is equal to the weight of the object, w= mg.

The mass of any object is defined as the quantity of matter contained in it. It is constant and does not change from location to location. It can never be zero.

The earth does attract every object towards its centre. This attraction force does depend on the mass of the body and also the acceleration due to gravity at any specific location. Thus the weight of any object is the force with which it would be attracted towards the centre of the earth.

The acceleration generated b the force of attraction of the earth is termed as the acceleration due to gravity.

The falling of any object in air under the action of gravity by neglecting the air resistance can be termed as a free fall and the object is known as the freely falling body.

It was proved that in the absence of any air resistance, or in vacuum all the objects do fall at the same rate irrespective of the magnitude of their masses. But some early thinkers did assume that all the objects fall down at equal rates of velocity in the absence of air resistance!

The Very Essence Of Space Time And Gravity

The pulling force that keeps all matter together is called gravity. As the matter increases so does the gravitational force. The amount of matter in something is measured by mass. When things are huge they exert more gravitational force. A very good example of gravitational force is the force exerted by Earth. When we walk the earth pulls us towards it and on the contrary we pull the earth towards us. However since the earth is massive we are not able to move it. The earths force is much higher and is powerful enough to make a person face down.

Gravity depends on the mass and also the distance. This is exactly why we still remain on the earth and are not pulled out into space by the sun which has a gravitational force that is many times more powerful than that of Earth.

All about Space-time and its fundamentals

Things start and happen in space. Time is considered to be when these things happen. It is necessary to combine these two elements to actually understand the universe.

Another fundamental is that though light travels at 299,792,458 meters per second and you are in motion one might perceive that time travels faster which is not the reality

The Anti-gravity wheel

A wheel of 19 kg is lifted overhead using just one hand while the wheel is spinning at a few thousand RPM. The wheel at this point felt as light as a feather and this was due to the Gyroscopic precession.

The object’s weight produces a torque and this is why the wheel feels light when spinning. The torque vector is seen to increase the angular momentum in the same direction of the torque. Now when there is no angular momentum at the start, the new momentum will cause it to swing in the direction of torque. Now if there was an angular momentum at the start then the direction will be changed towards the angular momentum that causes precession.

Time travel by Stephen Hawking

Stephen Hawking researches the actual requirements for the concept of travelling time. He has provided detailed instructions to build a time travelling machine. He says that the requirements are very simple because it one takes a worm hole, a rocket or a large hadron collider to build the machine.

The premise is rooted in Einstein’s theory of relativity and Hawking believes that since time moves faster in certain places one can use this to move and travel to the future however impossible to travel to the past.

All There Is To Know About Terraforming Of Mars

A very hypothetical process by which the climate and surface of the planet Mars would be changed to accommodate humans thereby making colonization of Mars easier and safe is called terraforming of Mars. It is simply the transformation of the planet to allow the human race to safely inhabit it.

Terraforming concepts are numerous, however only a few seem to be achievable using technology of the modern world. Some concepts are close to impossible due to the heavy costs predicted, both natural and economic.

Factors that led to the thought of terraforming Mars

Anything that is deliberately done will have a motivational factor associated. Similarly the factors that led to the concept are the high demand for resources, population explosion and finally the doomsday theory. Mars is the closest to earth when it comes to livability and is said to have had thicker atmosphere and Earth like conditions earlier on. This planet is considered the most available because of its proximity from Earth, its water availability and similarity to our planet.

Challenges faced

· The environmental factors may pose a challenge in terraforming Mars.

· The pressure and gravity in Mars is considerably low

· The atmospheric pressure being very low will cause the bodily fluids to boil away.

· Even if breathable oxygen is provided in plenty, the low pressure will cause death in a few minutes.

Overcoming effects of the weather in space

The thin atmosphere of the planet may be the resultant of the absence of a magnetosphere. This causes the inability to mitigate solar radiation and thereby preventing the retaining of atmosphere.

The Ozone helps in providing protection from Ultraviolet light as it is blocked even before it breaks into hydrogen and oxygen.

Mars would require a magnetic field closer to what the Earth has in order to offset the effects of the solar wind.

The advantages

Theorists have come up with the theory that Mars is located in the outer most layer of what is termed as habitable. This is a region in the solar system where life is possible. The location of Mars is in an area where life is possible if the greenhouse gases increases the atmospheric pressure considerably.

The atmosphere of Mars contains many elements such as nitrogen, sulphur, hydrogen, oxygen and carbon and all these are crucial for life to exist.

An abundant of carbon-di-oxide is present as atmospheric content. A process called electrolysis could be applied to split oxygen and hydrogen but it is possible only if a good amount of electricity and water is available.

Strategies proposed

In order to colonise Mars it is required to build up the atmosphere, keep it warm and the atmosphere needs to be kept from being lost to space. The atmospheric pressure being very low makes it difficult to keep the atmosphere within.

The Emptiness Of Atomic Space

Of all of the anomalies in modern science, especially in the micro-world of particle physics and quantum mechanics that straddle the “I know what I saw” versus the “it can’t be therefore it isn’t” schools of philosophy is the “I know what I saw” enigma in atomic theory that dictates via actual experimental observation that atoms (hence all normal matter and antimatter) is 99.999% empty space. From our macro-world perspective we reply “it can’t be therefore it isn’t” because our world appears to be as close to 100% solid as makes no odds. We can’t pass through solid walls (only Casper the Friendly Ghost can really do that) and so we conclude again that “it can’t be therefore it isn’t”. It’s one of the rare times the scientist says “yes” and the layperson says “no way”.

If atoms are 99.999% empty space you’d think you’d have Superman’s X-Ray vision, only in the visible part of the spectrum, and could even without trying see through ‘solid’ matter, maybe even clear through Planet Earth* itself. Yet you can’t even see one millimetre into your own body. You might therefore conclude that there must be a sufficient number of atoms along your line of sight that ultimately block the visible light photons from passing on through whatever hunk of matter you are looking at**. Either that, or perhaps the wavelength of the visible light photons were such that they were too large to squeeze through the empty space inside of the atoms or the atomic structure concerned, like molecules. But that would be strange since the light-waves have no trouble passing through your eyeball and ultimately your eyeball is made up of atoms. Ah, but your eyeball, well your lens anyway, is transparent and that makes all the difference. Or does it?

You can see through many metres of distilled water, but probably not through many metres of pure distilled ice. There’s even less atoms in the pure ice since ice is less dense than liquid water which makes this even more of an anomaly than would otherwise be the case.

In a really real reality, if all of the hydrogen and oxygen atoms that collective form water and ice were 99.999% empty space, then both pure water and pure ice would be equally transparent or equally opaque. But that’s not the case. Something’s screwy somewhere.

You can see through many metres of distilled water, but not through even one millimetre of liquid mercury.

In a really real reality, if all water molecules (i.e. – hydrogen and oxygen atoms) were 99.999% empty space, and if all mercury atoms were 99.999% empty space, then both multi meters worth of water and especially one millimetre worth of mercury should be equally transparent or equally opaque. But they aren’t.

You can see through several metres of clear window glass but not if the same glass is frosted.

In a really real reality, if all the molecules composed of the atoms that make up clear window glass were 99.999% empty space, then both clear window glass and frosted window glass should be equally transparent or equally opaque. But they are not.

You can see through several centimetres of solid clear plastic but not if you so much as add a thin film of black paint to the surface of the plastic.

In a really real reality, if all the atoms that make up those solid clear plastic molecules were 99.999% empty space, and all the atoms that make up the molecules that make up black paint were 99.999% empty space, then solid clear plastic as well as solid clear plastic coated with a thin layer of black paint should be equally transparent or equally opaque. But that’s not the case.

You could probably see through hundreds of kilometres of pure gaseous hydrogen, helium, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, etc. but not through that thickness of chlorine gas.

In a really real reality, if all hydrogen, helium, chlorine, etc. atoms were 99.999% empty space, then hydrogen, helium, chlorine, etc. should be equally transparent or equally opaque. But chlorine gas is not transparent and hydrogen gas is not opaque over hundreds of kilometres.

So transparency has nothing to do with how many atoms are in your line of sight and blocking out the photons from reaching you by passing through from across the other side. It has nothing to do with the wavelength since one wavelength within the visible light spectrum can make it through many metres of pure distilled water but not though the equivalent of pure ice.

Or, take yet another example, light will pass through one millimetre of pure diamond but not through one millimetre of pure graphite or of pure coal. So? Well in all three cases all you have are plain carbon atoms. How is this explained since all carbon atoms are 99.999% empty space?

In a really real reality, if all carbon atoms were 99.999% empty space, then coal, graphite and diamond would be equally transparent or equally opaque. But they are not.

You know what’s coming next! It’s all a computer simulation and different substances (like ice and water; or coal, graphite and diamond; or chlorine and nitrogen or hydrogen) have been coded with different physical properties independent of the number of simulated atoms that make up those virtual reality substances.

Virtual reality gives us the illusion of ‘solid’ matter even though the matter in question is 99.999% empty space. You can’t walk through ‘solid’ walls because that’s in the programming in the same way that our video game characters can’t walk through their apparently ‘solid’ walls (Casper the exception) because that’s in their programming.

What’s in it for the entities, the Supreme Programmer(s) who have programmed things this way? Basically they could simulate our entire visible Universe using just 0.001% of the bits and bytes that would otherwise be required if they tried to simulate our visible Universe as really 100% solid matter***.

Think of it this way. You could design and construct a building using 1,000,000 100% solid bricks, or use 1,000,000 hollow bricks each brick a tiny fraction of the mass of the 100% solid brick. In either case you get the same building!

*Of course if that were the case any photons would pass right through you and your own eyes and you’d be for all practical purposes blind.

**If an atom is 99.999% empty space, then presumably anything 10,000 atoms or more in thickness should be opaque. But a 10,000 atomic thick thickness isn’t really very thick at all, so why are really thick transparent substances transparent? It’s unlikely in the extreme that photons from behind the transparent substance in question would hit the atom’s nucleus and/or its ‘orbiting’ electrons and hit just so as to be unimpeded in its journey toward your eyeball. There should be totally random scattering all over the place with only a tiny, tiny, tiny fraction, if any, making it to your eye bounce by bounce by bounce off of the obstacle course of nuclei / electrons.

***Actually the savings are even greater since you can simulate an entire star or even galaxy with a tiny, tiny, tiny fraction of the resources that would be required to simulate in exacting 100% full detail a star or a galaxy. No? Well planetariums do it all the time. Planetariums can simulate the entire visible Universe with just a tiny, tiny, tiny fraction of the resources required to reproduce the actual visible Universe.

Even More Random Thoughts In Physics

Sometimes you have a new thought, an idea, or eureka moment, but it’s not gutsy enough to expand into a reasonable length article or essay. So, here’s yet a third pot-pourri of thoughts dealing with physics and related too good not to record, but with not enough meat available to flesh out.

* In reviewing several of my essays I’ve noted that I’ve occasionally said that there is just the one physics, yet I’ve often said for the record that quantum physics and classical physics (General Relativity) are incompatible and forever will be. In other words, there’s no quantum gravity and no Theory of Everything (TOE). Is this in conflict? No. There is the one physics even though you’d be hard pressed to unify thermodynamics with levers, inclined planes and pulleys.

* Universal Parameters: You cannot determine from first principles what the properties of the Universe, or the fundamental particles that make up the Universe, are. They apparently can have free range. A proton is 2000 times more massive than an electron, but you can’t calculate that from the theoretical laws, principles and relationships of physics. It’s only determined experimentally. There doesn’t seem to be any reason why the proton couldn’t have been 0.2, 2, 20, 200 or 20,000 times the mass of an electron. The same applies to the relative forces. The theoretical laws, principles and relationships of physics do not require an opposite yet of equal value charge between the negative electron and the positive proton. Presumably the value of each could have been as far apart as their masses – that is a proton could have been 2000 times as positive as the electron is negative. Why not? There’s no reason why not apart from the fact that the Universe as we know it wouldn’t work, but then we wouldn’t be here to worry about that or what might have been.

* We’re all taught in high school the above, that the electric charge of an electron is equal and opposite to that of a proton. The ‘why’ of the relationship is never explained in any shape, manner or form. I’ve never seen an explanation given in any popular particle or quantum physics book. Now either the explanation is so bloody obvious authors don’t feel the need to explain the ‘why’ of the matter and insult the reader’s intelligence, or else the ‘why’ is in the way, way, way too hard basket and authors avoid the question and the issue to avoid appearing ignorant about so fundamental a fact.

* Black Holes would make excellent, in fact perfect, Thermos (vacuum) flasks. Pour into a Black Hole the contents of a star, say like the Sun. All that heat is then trapped and I do mean trapped!

* Light is a thing; gravity is a thing; things can affect each other, so when it comes to the bending of light in a gravitational field, there’s no need for all this nonsense of warped space, time or space-time, which, after all, are not-things but just mental concepts.

* If something quantum happens for no reason at all (i.e. – unstable nuclei goes poof) why doesn’t everything micro happen for no reason at all. Or, if some quantum happenings are just probabilities, why aren’t all micro happenings probabilities.

* An isolated neutron has a half-life of roughly 15 minutes before going poof or decaying into a proton, an electron and an anti-neutrino. Neutrons that ‘live’ in a community of neutrons like in the nucleus of atoms; as in a neutron star, don’t decay. They are stable in these community relations. That seems like something is screwy somewhere. Why is it so? I thought that might explain why the hydrogen atom (otherwise known as protium) had no neutron (just one electron and one proton), but then heavy hydrogen (deuterium) does have one neutron (plus one electron and one proton) so things get weirder and weirder.

* You obviously relate to being a human in a human-sized world. You can imagine being a cat or a dog and living in their world. You can probably extend that down to the world of insects and imagine yourself as a fly or ant or butterfly. At a stretch, you might be able to relate to and imagine yourself as a micro-organism living in say a drop of pond water or in the blood stream. But what about navigating down to the worldview of a photon or an electron? That I suspect is way, way, way too alien to imagine in your wildest dreams.

* We conceive of nanotechnology as building up from micro scratch what technology we want (say micro devices to traverse our blood vessels and clean them up from the inside) by manipulating atoms from the ground up and building whatever we want from those fundamental ‘Lego’ blocks. But what if the fundamental particles are themselves products of nanotechnology?

Life, The Universe And Everything Are Illusions

An illusion is anything which is not quite as it appears to be at face value. Illusions are just mental concepts based on perceptions of what you assumed were real through in reality had no actual structure or substance but in terms of perception otherwise appear to have actual structure and substance. The prime example is the Full Moon illusion whereby the Full Moon on the horizon or near the horizon appears much larger than when it is seen much higher in the sky or overhead. Of course it really is just an illusion. Here are some further examples of what IMHO are probably illusionary in that these concepts are not quite what they appear to be.

Really Real Reality Is An Illusion: Really real reality is just an illusion if we are really virtual reality beings ‘existing’ in a simulated landscape. That is to say, we are just programmed software in a sort of video game that’s been constructed by an entity or entities unknown. IMHO the odds that this is our (virtual) reality is quite high.

Superposition of State and the Collapse of the Wave-Function Are Illusions: It’s an illusion to have something that both is, and is not, at the same time and in the same place (i.e. – a prime example being Schrodinger’s Cat).

Depth Is An Illusion: Depth is an illusion is a possible three-fold way. Firstly, if we live it what’s termed the “Holographic Universe” then we no more have depth than the images in a hologram. Secondly, all of your perceptions, your version of reality, is totally within your own mind and is actually just a 2-D (up – down; left – right) image that your brain / mind generates. Thirdly, just like the images you see on a TV screen or on the silver screen or on your computer monitor or in a painting / picture are all really 2-D (depth is just an illusion of perspective and of your perception), if we in turn are just simulated beings in a virtual (video game) reality then we are obviously 2-D beings with again depth being a manufactured illusion. We’re no more 3-D than the characters in our computer simulations.

Dimensions Are An Illusion: Just like latitude and longitude, the concepts of up – down (top – bottom); left – right; and forward – backward are all illusions on the grounds that they have no actual structure nor any substance. They are inventions pure and simple to assist us in navigating our way around town, around the Earth; and around the Universe. Because the idea of dimensions are illusionary, the entire concept of String Theory must also be illusionary in that String Theory is dependent on the concept of there being really real actual extra dimensions.

Space Is An Illusion: You cannot create space or manipulate space so space is just another one of those mental concepts we entertain that helps us come to terms with life, the Universe and everything. Space is that mental container or box we imagine that contains the real stuff of the Cosmos like matter and energy in all its myriad forms.

Time Is An Illusion: Time is just change, a measurement of rate of change. Change is nothing more than motion. No motion equals no change equals no time. It’s meaningless to talk about time in the complete absence or change / motion. Measurements and units of measurements are just human inventions; mental concepts. In the absence of human beings, the concept of an hour is meaningless. An hour has no structure or substance; no mass or density; no colour or texture or hardness or electric charge and no other chemical or physical property either.

Space-Time Is An Illusion: If both 3-D space and time are illusions, then clearly the concept of space-time is also an illusion. However, it does make for an elegant mathematical structure that gives an illusionary explanation to how much of the large-scale Universe functions.

The Accelerating Universe Is An Illusion: An expanding Universe that is accelerating in that expansion rate is an illusion because it violates one of the most basic laws in all of physics, that being the conservation of matter / energy. If the Universe is accelerating in its expansion rate then additional energy has to come from somewhere. You can’t create additional energy out of nothing. Yet, that’s exactly what cosmologists backing this observation do. They invent extra energy to drive this acceleration, so-called ‘dark energy’, a hocus-pocus concept invented out of less than thin air.

Mental Reality Is An Illusion: As eluded to earlier, all of your reality is generated by your brain / mind via the electrical signals it receives from your sensory apparatus. There’s no room in your brain / mind for a life-sized 3-D reality. External reality cannot fit inside your skull. Your brain / mind compresses your external reality down into a miniaturized 2-D mental version of your alleged external reality.

Sense of Self; Self-Identity Is An Illusion: Your sense of self-identity, consciousness and sense of free will is absolutely so strong that you have absolutely no doubt that they exist and have a reality internal to yourself – whatever that actually is if it is anything at all. However, the central mystery is, for something so obvious, why are these reality ‘facts’ so elusive and hard to pin down? Your body has substance and structure. Your brain has substance and structure. Your sense of self-identity, consciousness and sense of free will do NOT have any substance or structure to them, so do they actually exist at all? Are you, that is your ‘inner you’, just an illusion? ‘You’ the ‘you’ that you think exists inside yourself, inside your body (i.e. – inside your brain) doesn’t actually exist at all. ‘The self’ is illusionary. You are basically just a mish-mash of millions of interconnected neurons, genes and memes. No more, no less. There is no real nebulous ‘inner you’.

Sleep Is An Illusion: Sleep is an illusion on the grounds that you are not an organism (singular) but a colony of billions of organisms – your body cells. Now if none of your body cells sleep 24/7/52, how can it ever be said that you are asleep.

Free Will Is An Illusion: Going back to the concept of you being a colony of body cells, if each and every one of your body cells has no free will, it’s difficult to see how any conglomerate of them can have free will. Further, there’s no experimental evidence anyone has free will, quite the contrary in fact. Further, if we exist in a 100% deterministic cosmos; a clockwork universe, then all outcomes are predetermined and thus there’s no free will. If the cosmos is entirely random then again you have no free will as all your decisions are random. Theologically, if God (see below) is all-knowing then you cannot have free will.

How Does Sound Transmit in Different Mediums

Scientists find out that there are three basic kinds of media for sound to travel through: solid, liquid and air. When sound waves move through solid, liquid or air, the molecules are vibrating in the matter. The molecules in solid are packed extremely tightly; the molecules in liquid are packed less tightly than in solid; the molecules in air are packed loosely. The reason is that solid has definite shape and volume; liquid has indefinite shape and definite volume; air has indefinite and indefinite volume. The speed of sound travelling in air is 340m/s, however, sound transmits four times faster in water than it does in air.

First, we focus on solid media such as wood, steel, plastic and so on. If a person is hitting a drum, the surface of drum will vibrate. Then he adds more force, and the sounds will become louder and clearer. If he strikes different parts of skin, the sound will also be different. People may wonder how to prove that the drum is vibrating and how to prove the loudness. We can put small pieces of paper on the drum surface. When the person strikes the drum softly, paper will jump. When the person strikes the drum hard, paper will jump higher.

Water is the most common liquid in the world and we can find that it is helpful everywhere. The particles in liquid are moving all the time so they can change their position easily. Whales can communicate in the sea over very long distances because sound travels faster in water than in air. Sound wave detector uses the same way to detect the image of sea below 5000 km in the sea.

Furthermore, human beings and terrestrial animals can hear sound from each other and communicate freely. Although air is not as efficient as liquid or solid, we are able hear sound in air and talk. The sound travels through a lot of materials in order for us to hear it. It transmits through air first and reach the eardrums. The eardrums vibrate and send the sound to our brains. We can understand the messages and respond them. The ability of human ears does not allow human beings to hear all the sound transmitting through air. Dogs, bats and dolphins can hear more sound than human beings.

In summary, sound cannot transmit unless there is no media in the whole environment such as in vacuum. The speed of travelling sound is different in different medias.

A Fourth Helping Of Random Thoughts About Physics

Sometimes you have a new thought, an idea, or eureka moment, but it’s not gutsy enough to expand into a reasonable length article or essay. So, here’s my fourth pot-pourri of thoughts dealing with physics and related, too good not to record, but with not enough meat available to flesh out.

* You’ll often note mathematicians and physicists expressing descriptive words like beauty and elegance when describing some mathematical equation or something that’s symmetrical. Of course this just exhibits evidence that scientists are human. However, there really is no place for such emotive concepts in science. The equation is what it is; the symmetry is what it is; the laws, principles and relations of science are what they are. They are not beautiful; they are not ugly; they are what they are. Beauty and elegance and related concepts are in the mind of the beholder, and science truths are independent of the human mind.

* Superposition of states is just a mental concept that has no bearing on reality. It is a way of enabling us to come to terms with lack of certainty whether you’re wondering about where that electron is or what the next card to be dealt is going to be or what the fate of Schrodinger’s cat is. Since certainty is normally the bedrock of our existence, we deal with uncertainty uneasily by looking at all the variations that are equally possible. But what is that one possibility that will ultimately be – we’d better check. Meantime…

IMHO, the electron is somewhere with precise coordinates even if you can’t pin it down. It’s not in two or more places at the same time. The next card to be dealt is fixed even if you never peek. Schrodinger’s cat is not both dead and alive but dead or alive even before you open the box.

If you really believe there is a real superposition of states, then substitute Schrodinger’s cat for John’s thermonuclear bomb and be willing to stand by the box that houses and conceals that bomb for the duration. I maintain you’d be foolish to do that since a thermonuclear bomb cannot be both in a state of explosion and non-explosion simultaneously.

But if you seriously believe that a thermonuclear bomb can be in a superposition of states, then after a reasonable time interval has elapsed, you can scurry off to the bunker and send in a robot with a video link to open the box and see if the bomb is intact or not. I feel that will prove to be an unnecessary step.

Just like the concept of the superposition of states is an abstraction, a mental concept, the associated collapse of the wave function is just the mental satisfaction gained in resolving an either/or dualism or situation into an either this or that reality (or acceptance that resolution is beyond your means through no fault of your own). But in neither case is there a really real superposition of states or a collapse of any wave function.

* Your mind contains all that makes you, you. It is the essence of you. It contains and controls your perceptions, knowledge, memories, creativity, emotions, your thinking, your understanding or comprehension or ability to figure things out, your personality, and it houses your dreams and daydreams. A frequent topic for discussion in philosophical circles is whether or not the mind, specifically your mind, is the be-all-and-end-all of cosmic reality. The answer IMHO is a resounding “no” because the mind cannot be a perpetual motion ‘machine’. In other words, the mind is like all things (assuming other things), a thing subject to deterioration over time or subject to entropy. All things go downhill – dust accumulates, desks get cluttered, stars run out of fuel, cars breakdown and people grow old. It takes a constant supply of external reality energy and matter (same difference) to keep entropy at bay. That renewal of supply might win the battles, but entropy ultimately wins the war.

* Some more about the Simulated (Virtual Reality) Universe: The apparently real world is a quantum world. The cosmos (with perhaps the exception of gravity) isn’t a continuous structure but comes in discrete bits called quanta. You can have this or that or the next thing, like a 5 cent or 10 cent or 20 cent coin (I’m talking Australia here), but no single coin value in-between. That is, there’s no 3 cent coin, no 7 cent coin and no 15 cent coin of the realm. Well ultimately computer software is either/or as well. Built from the ground up, software code starts off by being either a one or a zero (binary maths). There’s no software code for 0.5 or 0.99 or 1.5.

The second and related bit is what happens if you zoom in on what you know is a computer generated (software) simulation, be it your digital watch, a flight simulator or a video game. It’s like when you zoom in on a newspaper photograph. Eventually you get down to irreducible and thus individual dots of differing shades – pixels. Pixels are also the measure used when talking about computer screen or TV monitor resolution. The more pixels you have per unit of area, the sharper the resulting image. Now zoom in on something you think isn’t simulated, like a hair on your head or that diamond on that ring on your finger or that lettuce leaf in your salad. You’d quickly zoom past all of that structure down to the molecular level hence down to the atomic level hence down to the subatomic level. That’s where you hit bedrock. You hit the individual pixels comprising matter and energy that can’t be further reduced into anything more fundamental. And, as with your computer or TV screen, the more subatomic pixels per area (or in nature volume), the more distinct the image. So in general gases don’t form a clear an image as liquids which tend to lack the visual details inherent in or of solid structures.

* A particle is a thing. A wave is a not-thing, just a mathematical concept or construct. For a wave to wave, or take on the mathematical shape of a wave, it has to have a physical substance in which to do its wavy thing. Thus, a water wave needs physical water; a sound wave needs air (or a liquid or a solid). A light wave therefore would need a substance in which to wave. For a long time that was the theoretical concept of the ether, but alas the ether remained just that – a nice theory laid low by observation; an inconvenient truth. The upshot therefore is that light waves of all ‘frequencies’ (i.e. – visible, radio, infra-red, etc.) are just particles – photons. Photons are things and being things they can travel through the vacuum of space. They don’t wave since there is nothing to wave in.

* Those Double Slit Experiments:

#1 If photons, electrons, Bucky-balls, etc. are fired in rapid succession at a single slit, with a detector (like say photographic film or a TV screen) behind the slit, then a quasi-blob of impacts are detected. Particles!

#2 If photons, electrons, Bucky-balls, etc. are fired in rapid succession at a double slit, with a detector behind the slits, then a classic wave interference (constructive and destructive interference) pattern emerges. Waves!

#3 If photons, electrons, Bucky-balls, etc. are fired one at a time, at a single slit, such that one photon, etc. completes the journey before the next one is fired off, with again a detector behind the slit, then a quasi-blob of impacts are ultimately detected. Particles!

#4 If photons, electrons, Bucky-balls, etc. are fired one at a time at a double slit, such that one photon, etc. completes the journey before the next one is fired off, again with a detector behind the slits, then ultimately after enough firings, a classic wave interference (constructive and destructive interference) pattern emerges. Waves! However, that implies one photon, electron, Bucky-ball, etc. somehow manages to go through both slits at the same time and interferes with itself. That’s absurd. But you ain’t seen nothing yet!

#4A The above assumes nobody (human or independent observation device) is peeking and taking the slightest notice of what’s going on – they are just looking at the pattern on the detector screen after the fact; after the experiment has concluded.

#4B However, if someone, human or independent observation device, is peeking and taking absolute and total notice of what’s going on, and determining at the precise time of passage which slit(s) the lone photon, etc. is actually going through, then the interference pattern doesn’t eventuate and you get a quasi-blob of hits on the detector behind each of the two slits. Somehow the photon, etc. is somehow ‘aware’ that it is being observed and changes it’s behaviour accordingly – keeping in mind that the very act of observing before-the-fact unobserved properties of a photon, etc. alters those properties after-the-fact, since you can’t observe something without mucking around with it.

#4C What if someone, human or independent observation device, peeks, but only after the photon, etc. has already passed through presumably but absurdly both slits? That shouldn’t affect the outcome since it’s now too little to late for the photon, etc. to change its mind. But again, regardless, the wave interference pattern disappears even after the peeking is done after the photon, etc. has passed through both slits. The one very nasty implication is that the photon, etc. travels back in time to just before or when it was emitted so as to now make the correct choice (pass through one and only one slit) to correlate what it does with what is detected.

Conclusion: If you turn your back, and there’s a double slit available, the detector screen, and therefore you, will detect a wave. If you don’t turn your back, but do a peeping-Tom act, double slit notwithstanding, the detector screen and therefore you detect a particle. The two very disturbing facets are that a photon, etc. displays awareness, and free will, as well as exhibiting the ability to travel backwards in time.

* Take atoms that are apparently electrical neutral, say one that has ten electrons in orbit around ten protons (plus ten neutrons). However, the force of the electric charge should obey the inverse square law (double the distance; one quarter the force). So if an electron(s) quantum jumps up one or more energy levels (i.e. – orbits) then the electrical force between the protons and the electrons lessens since the distance between the two has increased. That should throw the precise electric force neutrality for that atom out of whack.

* Impressive! If you remove all the empty space within an atom, and do that for each and every atom that’s part and parcel of each and human being on the planet, one could in theory fit the entirety of the human race into a volume the size of a sugar cube. But that’s just a baby step towards a theoretical singularity and since the constituents are now already in direct contact (no space, remember), so what’s left to compress. Can an electron be squeezed down?

* Can the electromagnetic spectrum be extended to near infinity either side, and if not, why not?

* Photons / gravitons do not ever experience time since they travel at the speed of light. From the moment of the Big Bang until they (i.e. – photons) enter your eye, not even a fleeting instant of time has passed according to their worldview. In other words, to a photon (or a graviton), everything is now. They have no comprehension of past or future.

* We think that time is something real because time absolutely rules our lives. The clock is probably the most in-you-face dictator that you have to acknowledge and obey each and every day, followed closely by the calendar. Further of course, we associate time with our start in life and ultimately our finish. However, if you really try to pin the concept of time down, it becomes quite illusive. I forget what philosopher said it, but it was to the effect that everybody known exactly what the concept of time is until they have to explain the concept of time to somebody else. Anyway, time is really an illusion because you can’t pin it down to being just this or that. Our units of time (seconds, minutes, hours, weeks, months, etc.) are just pure inventions and even a ‘day’ and a ‘year’ aren’t absolute. Time actually has no structure or substance and no physical properties. You could say that time is an illusion because it gives a false sense or impression of something being actually present. The concept of time is a tune that’s only present in your own mind but you surely dance to that tune throughout most of your waking life.

* Quantum physics may not have to defy common sense, but to date quantum physics DOES defy common sense. Recall Richard Feynman’s famous statement that nobody, not even Feynman himself as he himself admitted, understood quantum physics. Einstein, Schrodinger and even Niels Bohr made similar comments.

* String theory only works if one postulates extra spatial dimensions – six extra dimensions if memory serves. The standard model of particle physics doesn’t postulate or require extra dimensions. Now string theory gets the big thumbs down from me for the reason that the ideas central to string theory go back way over three decades now. In all of that time however, there’s not been one experimental verification of any aspect of string theory. String theorists talk-the-talk but can’t apparently walk-the-walk. Although I only have this as a gut feeling, I think string theory is finally on the wane now. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) should have been able by now to verify one aspect of string theory – super-symmetry (SUSY). Alas, the LHC hasn’t come up with the super-symmetrical goodies. So, methinks string theory is all tied up in untangle-able knots.

* Dimensions just don’t exist as really real reality. You cannot detect dimensions with your five senses. You cannot detect dimensions with any instrumentation at your command that’s known to science, engineering, technology, whatever. Dimensions have all of the same degree of reality as the concept of Wednesday. In fact, I just might claim that there are seven dimensions, one for each corresponding day of the week. It makes just about as much sense. Each concept serves the same general function of assisting us in defining our position in time and space. If it’s Tuesday it must be Belgium! Anyway, since it is clear that dimensions do not have structure or substance (just being mental concepts), scientists should cease referring to them in such ways as to imply that they do.

* Though a photon is fundamental and an electron is fundamental, I assume that an electron that has absorbed a photon isn’t fundamental.

Is temperature fundamental? No, since temperature is just a property – much like wetness – of a conglomerate of particles. No individual particle has a temperature or wetness. But all particles, each and every one, have a velocity, even if it’s only vibrational. Velocity is a fundamental property. But you can’t have velocity without particles, fundamental or otherwise. So what other properties are fundamental properties?

One would appear to be electric charge (whatever that actually is and however that is actually generated). Fundamental particles are either positively, negatively or neutrally charged.

Parallel Vs Series Circuit

Parallel Vs Series CircuitAn electric circuit is formed when the electrons from a voltage or current source flow, but most circuits have more than one device that receives electric energy. Most of the devices in a circuit like a light bulb, resistor, or a capacitor are connected in one of two ways, series or parallel. When it’s connected in series, the devices form a single pathway for electron flow between the terminals. Then when it’s connected in parallel the wires form branches; this means that it separates the path for the flow of electrons. Parallel and series both have their own different way to connect and they are calculated using different formulas.

Series is an electric circuit in which electrical devices are connected along a single wire so that the same electric current flows through all of them. What this means for resistance is that it’s greater, because the electrons all go through the same path through the circuit. The way to find series is to find the total resistance by using the formula: Rt= R1+ R2+ R3. This means by using the different amount of resistance in the circuit then adding them together, so that the total resistance is calculated. Then since the electrons go through in one path then the current goes slower. In contrast to a series circuit, the electrons in a parallel circuit don’t go through just one loop in one pathway. The electrons go through different loops so this means the resistance isn’t greater compared to series; the current is greater because they have more pathways to go through. Parallel circuit is an electric circuit in which electrical devices are connected in such a way that the same voltage acts across each branch, and any single one completes the circuit independently of all the others. We can calculate the total resistance in a parallel circuit by using the formula: 1 over Rt = 1 over R1+ 1 over R2 + 1 over R3. By using the formula the total resistance is found, but an important thing to keep in mind is to reverse the answer.

Then there are different examples of series and parallel circuits. For example in earlier automobiles both headlights went out when one bulb burned out. The headlights must have been connected in series because if one of the headlights burned it would cut the electric flow to the other bulb as well, making them both out of operation. Examples of parallel circuits are used all over homes like multi-bulb lights and Christmas lights. The parallel circuits make sure that if one of the bulbs burn out then the others will still light up.